An analysis of how modernization made our society post literate
Characteristics of modernization
International Journal of Comparative Sociology — Indeed, the political structures of all empirical societies—historical and contemporaneous—are mixed; the degree of their modernity is determined by whichever tendency predominates within the mix. They say political regimes do not transition to democracy as per capita incomes rise. Even though these attributes of equality are only imperfectly realized in the most modern polities, they continue to operate as the central standards and imperatives by which modernization is measured and political legitimacy established. Ed, Ph. Thus, each past event is not only chronologically, but causally tied to present and future events. Human society was compared to a biological organism, and social science equivalents of concepts like variation , natural selection , and inheritance were introduced as factors resulting in the progress of societies. Opponents argue that modernity is independent of culture and can be adapted to any society. Scope for saving and investment, expansion of market from local to international. Press; New York: Wiley.
What was not clear, until very recently, is that an external input of investment does not necessarily ignite the motor of modernization and almost never suffices to keep it running.
Kornhauser, William Rebellion and Political Development. Cambridge, Mass. New York: Praeger. Spengler, Joseph J. According to Seymour Martin Lipset, economic conditions are heavily determined by the cultural, social values present in that given society.
Global trade has grown continuously since the European discovery of new continents in the Early modern period ; it increased particularly as a result of the Industrial Revolution and the midth century adoption of the shipping container.
Cambridge Univ. Among the conclusions that have emerged many of them reminders of lessons brought by anthropologists from their early encounters with traditional societies a century and more ago is this reciprocal proposition: Traditional societies can respond effectively to internally generated demands for institutional change articulated over a relatively long period, but they are typically incapable of rapid institutional changes to meet externally induced demands.
Criteria of modernity Although no single theoretical formulation as yet commands consensus among social scientists, there has been steady convergence among scholars on certain key points concerning modernization. Economic Development and Cultural Change — Contact with foreign cultures fosters international cooperation, but can also result in further loss of culture as people begin to adopt the foreign cultures and languages they are exposed to. Individual political leaders and political elites have been the prime movers in political modernization. As Tipps has argued, by conflating modernization with other processes, with which theorists use interchangeably democratization, liberalization, development , the term becomes imprecise and therefore difficult to disprove. World Politics — Democratization and modernization[ edit ] The relationship between modernization and democracy is one of the most researched studies in comparative politics. Social change refers to any significant alteration over time in behavior patterns and cultural values and norms.
Homewood, In some instances, Western democratic institutions are used explicitly as the empirical referents for a model of political modernity; in others such an identification is only implicit.
Modernization involves industrialization accompanied with monetization of economy, increasing division of labor, use of management techniques and improved technology and the expansion of service sector.
Specific theories of social or cultural evolution often attempt to explain differences between coeval societies by positing that different societies have reached different stages of development.
Scope for saving and investment, expansion of market from local to international. The dominant, neoliberal model of globalization often increases disparities between a society's rich and its poor.
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