The city of Timbuktu, in what is now Mali, was an important trading center for several African civilizations. Such huge population shifts reduced the ability of the Maya to communicate, administrate, and unite against outside forces and natural disaster s such as drought.
Six of the most important characteristics are: cities, government, religion, social structure, writing and art. The Pueblo people never disappeared, of course: Diverse groups developed their own, competing civilizations after the Ancestral Puebloans migrated or fell apart.
Infrastructure and Administration All civilizations rely on government administration —bureaucracy. Other residents provided food or shelter for trade caravan s traveling on camels from the Sahara Desert. London: Elsevier Inc. Rulers and an upper class of priests, government officials, and warriors dominated society.
Changing classes has traditionally been difficult and happens over generation s.
Culturally diverse Ancestral Puebloans were connected by a complex road system, a standard style of religious worship, and a unique art style evidence d by pottery and petroglyph s. By and large, however, the early river valley civilizations developed independently. External pressures can also lead to the gradual diminish ing of a civilization.
The Inca civilization, for example, had no written script that we know of, but its complex khipu system of accounting allowed the government to conduct census es of its population and production across the vast stretch of the Andes mountains.
The Khmer civilization was founded on the consistent resistance of political pressure from the Cham and Vietnamese, but it ultimately could not withstand pressure from Thai civilizations.